Luis Berrocal-Rangel; Pablo Paniego Díaz; Lucía Ruano; Gregorio R. Manglano Valcárcel 2017: “Aplicaciones LiDAR a la topografía arqueológica: el Castro de Irueña (Fuenteguinaldo, Salamanca).” CuPAUAM 43: 195-215, Madrid.

Resumen: Este trabajo pretende demostrar la utilidad de las nuevas tecnologías de Información Geográfica (TIC) aplicadas a las prospecciones extensivas en Arqueología. Sobre un caso concreto, el llamado castro de Irueña, los autores han realizado un estudio de campo combinando las prospecciones sobre el terreno con la aplicación de tecnologías LiDAR y SIG, para ofrecer una planta topográfica totalmente novedosa que permite, junto a algunos posibles hallazgos externos, interpretar mejor los restos arqueológicos conocidos previamente.

Palabras clave: TIC; LiDAR; SIG; Vettones; Irueña.

Abstract: In this paper, the authors try to defend the utilities that they have obteined from new geographical information technologies to the Archaeological surveys. They have applied LiDAR system and GIS software, besides a ground survey, over a study case, the so-called “castro de Irueña” (Salamanca, Spain) and they managed a new mapping of the site, with new inside and outside findings that allow to explain much better archaeological remains from older excavations.

Key words: Topography; LiDAR; GIS; Vettones; Irueña.

Luis Berrocal-Rangel, Pablo Paniego & Lucía Ruano (EP) Atlantic zone hillforts with up-right stone rows and their relationship with coastal routes
Summary: Maritime contacts between Atlantic territories have existed since 3rd millennium BC.
There have been several archaeological findings dating from the Early Bronze Age onwards across these coasts that allow us to defend this fact, like the boats of Ferriby (Yorkshire), Brigg (Lincolshire), Dover (Kent), Broighter (Northern Ireland) or Oia (Galicia). These discoveries made us think about the possible marine routes that would connect the Atlantic Arc from Scotland to the Iberian Peninsula, favouring similar developments in very distant regions. Among other aspects, these similarities can be seen in certain types of defensive architectures, like hillforts with up-right stones rows, a resource commonly known as ‘chevaux-de-frise’. These types of defences can be found in settlements from Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France, Spain, Portugal and Italy. We defend a common background for the examples from Late Bronze Age and Early IronAge, in spite of the different settlement locations, some on sea-cliffs and others in river gorges, but the latter replicating inland the same topographical layout. Therefore, the movement of ideas and techniques among people from distant territories had led to resembling processes that show us about a shared past.
Keywords: Hill-forts, chevaux-de-frise, up-right stones rows, sailing
Publicación en la monografía: Enclosing Space, Opening New Ground: Iron Age Studies from Scotland to mainland
Europe, Tanja Romankiewicz, Manuel Fernández-Götz, Gary Lock and Olivier Büchsenschütz, eds., Oxford: Oxbow Books (2019).
Aceptado 01/05/2017

Luis Berrocal-Rangel, António Carlos S. Silva, Rosario García Giménez, Lucía Ruano 2018: From earth to wood: the ramparts of Ratinhos (Moura, Portugal) as an example in the transition between the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age

Summary: The thorough archaeological excavations carried out between 2004 and 2007 in Castro dos Ratinhos allowed us to identify and interpret for the first time the constructive system of ramparts of the Late Bronze Age in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. We were also able to identify a more modern type of defensive construction, dated at the end of the 9th BC. Built with a framework of wood beams, it was affected by a fire that vitrified or calcined the building materials. This paper explores the differences between both defensive models and discloses the results of the geo-chemical analysis carried out on the affected materials.

Keywords: Hill-forts, chevaux-de-frise, up-right stones rows, sailing

Presentado: al coloquio internacional de la Comisión Europe Metal Ages de la UISPP FortMetalAges ­- Late Prehistoric Fortifications in Europe. Defensive, symbiolic and territorial aspects from Chalcolithic to the Iron Age, celebrado em Guimarâes (Portugal), del 6 al 9 de noviembre de 2017.

Publicación en la monografía: Late Prehistoric Fortifications in Europe. Defensive, symbiolic and territorial aspects from Chalcolithic to the Iron Age. Davide Delfino, Fernando Coimbra, Manuel Fernández-Götz, Daniela Cardoso & Gonçalo Crus, eds., Oxford: Archeopress B.A.R. I.S. (2019).

Aceptado 22/01/2018

Luis Berrocal-Rangel, Rosario García Giménez, Lucía Ruano Raquel Vigil de la Villa 2018: Vitrified Walls in the Iron Age of Western Iberia: New Research from an Archaeometric Perspective

Summary: The phenomenon of Iron Age vitrified ramparts has become increasingly recognisable in the last twenty years in the Iberian Peninsula. After the first walls with vitrified stones were discovered in southern Portugal, there have been several findings scattered throughout western Iberia. A chronological sequence from the Late Bronze Age to the Late Iron Age can be established on the basis of the archaeological remains, with reference to different historical and functional conditions. This article reviews the data obtained from the various sites, in order to understand the context in which the stone structures became vitrified. Furthermore, we have analysed samples of stones and mud bricks that have been altered by fire from these sites, which has allowed us to explain the variability in the archaeological record in relation to different historical processes. With all these data, we aim to contribute to our knowledge of a phenomenon that is widespread in Iron Age Europe.
Keywords:Vitrification, Iberian Peninsula, archaeometry, ramparts, hillforts, fortifications

Publicación en:

European Journal of Archaeology 22 (), Cambridge University Press (2019).

Aceptado 29/10/2018

Luis Berrocal-Rangel, Pablo Paniego & Lucía Ruano 2018: Hillforts with Upright-Stone Bands in the Western Iberian Plateau: An Approach to the Warfare Iron Age Landscape Archaeology

Summary: Along the Celtic territories, the Iberian Peninsula is the area with the largest number of hill-forts with upright-stone bands defensive devices, usually misnamed chevaux-de-frise. Parallels are found from the south-eastern France (Pech Maho, Languedoc) to Ireland (Dun Aonghasa, Galway...), Wales (Castell Henllys...) and Scotland (Kaimes Hill, Mislothian...), most of them dated from the Iron Age. But some new data and interpretations emphasize different contexts which lead to diverse explanations. With the use of Geographical Information System as LiDAR images to the study of the landscape, we have analysed one of the most significant group in the Spanish territory, that was built by a Celtic people, called Vettones. Thus, we try to reach a solid definition for this group. In this region, great oppida with big and solid ramparts, ditches, bastions and, probably, towers are characteristics. Anyway, the upright-stone bands devices are just six cases, between them the most powerful and richest oppida. Therefore, if the upright-stone bands defences are a simple device, we ask ourselves for the reasons of these differences.

Keywords: Chevaux-de-frise, Hillfort, Landscape Archaeology, Warfare

Presentado: al XVII International Congress de la UISPP, celebrado en la Universidad de la Sorbonne I (París, Francia), del 3 al 7 de junio de 2018.

Publicación solicitada para: Monografía publicada en Oxford: Archeopress B.A.R. I.S. (2019)


Luis Berrocal-Rangel 2018: Oppida y Fortificaciones. El factor poliorcético en la Arquitectura Defensiva de la Edad del Hierro

Resumen: El término oppidum es usado habitualmente para definir los poblados principales de la Edad del Hierro europea, desde la desembocadura del Danubio a la misma del Tajo. Inherente a esta definición, tales poblados se suponen fuertemente protegidos por obras defensivas hasta ser considerados como verdaderas “fortificaciones”. Aunque esta acepción es muy cuestionable, si acudimos al uso histórico del término, razones de pragmatismo metodológico nos llevan a aceptarla, resaltando de ella que la complejidad es consustancial a sus dos características (como “sedes de poder” y “fortificaciones”) y damos por hecho que los oppida reflejaban diferentes resultados sociales y arquitectónicos, más o menos cercanos a los propios de la ciudad mediterránea. Pero, desde nuestra perspectiva, existen diferencias de fondo incuestionables entre ambos conceptos. Un análisis comparativo entre la poliorcética de los oppida y las primeras ciudades permite comprender que, tras una apariencia de similitud formal, esconden profundas diferencias ideológicas, técnicas y sociales, que se relacionan con diferentes formas de concebir y representar la vida por parte de las comunidades que las habitaron. Pareciendo, a veces, verdaderas obras poliorcéticas a la manera urbana del Mediterráneo, las defensas de los oppida muestran debilidades conceptuales; calidades constructivas; y ausencias de elementos de verdadera complejidad, lo que nos impiden confundir sus enormes murallas y fosos con las fortificaciones de una verdadera ciudad contemporánea. Y esto se comprende, entre otras razones, porque tales defensas responden a necesidades y funciones diferentes. Por ejemplo, en las referidas a sus valores bélicos, las formas de afrontar los conflictos, la ausencia de guerras de movimientos y posiciones, la utilización de tácticas de guerrilla, o de la misma monomachia, se manifiestan en dichas construcciones en combinación con la importancia desmedida de la mera “ostentación”, frente a otros recursos técnicos y funcionalistas de las murallas urbanas. Todo ello permite comprender una parte del porqué las defensas de los oppida no pueden confundirse con las defensas de las ciudades.

Palabras clave: Chevaux-de-frise, Hillfort, Landscape Archaeology, Warfare

Publicación on line:

Museo Arqueológico Nacional de España:

Luis Berrocal-Rangel 2018: The Lusitanian Wars, a faceless conflict from the Archaeology of the 2nd century BC

Summary: According to Greco-Latin ancient writers, the Lusitanian Wars were a series of military conflicts between the Western Celtic peoples of the Iberian Peninsula and the invading Roman legions, from the beginning of the 2nd Century BC to the middle of the 1st Century BC. The main events of these conflicts happened from 150 to 138 BC, when Hispano-Celtic tribes were commanded by a historical leader, known with the name of Viriathus. His victories were ought to the war strategy imposed by indigenous troops, the guerrilla warfare. Therefore, the conflicts were swift movements which left few and small marks. By contrast, later Civil Roman conflicts in Iberia had major battles, permanent camps and defensive fronts, leaving more visible archaeological marks, easier to identify: destroyed ramparts, burned sites, new weapons, hidden depots… In this paper, we offer an approach to the Landscape Archaeology and defensive Architecture of the Late Iron Age in Western Iberia. Studying contemporary fortifications and weapons, we can attest that the Lusitanian wars were not an invention of the Roman writers, as a propaganda mechanism, and proposing then conclusive suggestions to understand this faceless conflict.

Keywords: : Lusitanian war;Viriathus, Landscape Archaeology, Roman conquest

Presentado: a la 10th International Fields of Conflict Conference, Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center (U.S.A.), del 26 al 30 de septiembre de 2018.

Publicación on line: Field Notes. Research Department Chronicles:

Bartolomé, G.; Blanco, J.F. y Berrocal-Rangel, L. 2019. El poblado fortificado de la Edad del Hierro de los Valles y Torrecuadradilla CuPAUAM 45: 203-224, 

Resumen: Este artículo constituye un adelanto de las investigaciones arqueológicas desarrolladas en el yacimiento de La Muela de Torrecuadrada de los Valles y Torrecuadradilla, un asentamiento situado en la cuenca alta del río Tajuña, en la provincia de Guadalajara. El momento inicial de ocupación se remonta al Bronce Final de signo Cogotas I, como indican las cerámicas pertenecientes a esta cultura arqueológica recuperadas en prospección y en excavación arqueológicas.
Posteriormente, aunque desconocemos la continuidad del poblamiento, en el lugar estuvo asentada una comunidad de la Primera Edad del Hierro vinculable con las fases antiguas de la cultura celtibérica. A partir del siglo V a.C. se impuso la cerámica fabricada a torno decorada con pintura roja y negra, en un entorno caracterizado, presumiblemente, por viviendas de planta rectangular y por importantes fortificaciones de notable calidad técnica construidas con sillarejos. Posteriormente, La Muela fue reocupada durante el Bajo Imperio Romano.

Palabras clave: : Bronce Final, Cogotas I, Primera Edad del Hierro, Cultura Celtibérica, Fortificaciones, Valle del Tajo

Publicación on line: